References for AIFST Conference paper (July 2012)
“Avoiding harmful food additives” (Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology national conference, Adelaide July 2012)
What consumers think
The real food trend, MLA, December 2008
The New York Schools Study
Schoenthaler SJ and others. The impact of a low food additive and sucrose diet on academic performance in 803 New York City public schools. International Journal of Biosocial Research, 1986 (8)2:185-195.
How many are affected?
2003 – At the Dingle School in Cheshire, UK, a class of 6-year-olds was asked to avoid additive-free food (39 additives) at home and at school for two weeks while a twin in that class and his brother eating normally in another class were monitored by Professor Jim Stevenson from Southampton University. At the end of two weeks, 57 per cent of parents reported an improvement in their child's behaviour and 56 per cent recorded better sleep patterns and cooperation in the additive-free class. As well, the IQ of the twin on the additive free diet had improved by 25% while the additive-eating twin's IQ had only improved by 10%. The twins were monitored by Prof J Stevenson of the psychology department at Southampton University. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1428657/Twin-outshines-brother-on-additive-free-diet.html
Allergy and intolerance
Hodge L et al Food allergy and intolerance. Aust Fam Physician. 2009 Sep;38(9):705-7.
Adverse reactions to additives
Clarke L et al, The dietary management of food allergy and food intolerance in children and adults, Aust J Nutr Diet, 1996;53(3):89-94
Behavioural changes in children: Rowe KS, Rowe KJ, Synthetic food coloring and behavior: a dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study, J Pediatr, 1994;125(5 Pt 1):691-8;
Asthma and additives: Fifty-first meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Safety Evaluation of Certain Food Additives: sulfur dioxide and sulfites, World Health Organisation, Geneva, 1999; http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v042je06.htm
Additives of concern
From: Dept Health and Ageing National Healthy School Canteens Guidelines 2010 p43 http://fedup.com.au/images/stories/NationalHealthySchoolCanteens2011.pdf
McCann D at al Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Nov 3;370(9598):1560-7.
Towns SJ, Mellis CM. Role of acetyl salicylic acid and sodium metabisulfite in chronic childhood asthma. Pediatrics. 1984 May;73(5):631-7.
Papazian, R. Sulfites: Safe for Most, Dangerous for Some, 1996, FDA Consumer http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/096_sulf.html
World Health Organisation - Fifty-first meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Safety Evaluation of sulfur dioxide and sulfites and addendum, Geneva: World Health Organisation, 1999, http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v042je06.htm
The bread preservative
Dengate S, Ruben A. Controlled trial of cumulative behavioural effects of a common bread preservative. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002 Aug;38(4):373-6.
Brusque AM, Mello CF, Buchanan DN et al. Effect of chemically induced propionic acidemia on neurobehavioral development of rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1999;64(3):529-34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Brusque%20Mello%20propionic
MSG & Free glutamates
Effects of MSG
Holton KF and others The effect of dietary glutamate on fibromyalgia and irritable bowel symptoms. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012 Jul 4. [Epub ahead of print]
Hodge L, Yan KY, Loblay RL. Assessment of food chemical intolerance in adult asthmatic subjects. Thorax. 1996;51(8):805-9.
Schaumburg HH and others. Monosodium L-glutamate: its pharmacology and role in the Chinese restaurant syndrome. Science. 1969;163(3869):826-8.
'The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires labeling of all ingredients on processed and packaged foods. When MSG is added to a food, it must be included on the ingredient list as "monosodium glutamate." Glutamate-containing food ingredients, such as hydrolyzed protein and autolyzed yeast extract, also must be listed on food labels. When glutamate is a component of natural protein foods, like tomatoes, it is not listed separately on the label.' From the International Food Information Council MSG brochure, 2010 (no longer displayed on their website)
A 1996 proposed declaration of glutamates in food was withdrawn due to industry pressure http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/DOCKETS/dailys/03/jul03/072803/02N-0434_emc-000005-01.PDF
Sommer R. Yeast extracts: production, properties and components. 9th International Symposium on Yeasts, Sydney 1996.
Salicylates and food flavours
Dr Ben Feingold. Why your child is hyperactive. Random House, 1974.
Swain AR, Dutton SP and Truswell AS. Salicylates in foods. J Am Diet Assoc 1985;85:950-60.
Feingold BF. Recognition of food additives as a cause of symptoms of allergy. Ann Allergy. 1968 Jun;26(6):309-13.
Feingold BF. Hyperkinesis and learning disabilities linked to artificial food flavors and colors. Am J Nurs. 1975 May;75(5):797-803.