All food additives are listed below by code number and by name

NOW AVAILABLE AS DOWNLOADABLE PDF

There are currently about 320 permitted food additives in Australia/New Zealand.

About 50 are most likely to cause adverse reactions. They are marked in RED with “AVOID”

Other Additives in ORANGE should be used, if at all, with caution. Very few of any of the additives listed have been adequately tested from the point of view of food intolerance so it is possible for individuals to react even if the additive is not shown in red.

Other additives are unlikely to cause food intolerance reactions. This includes anti-caking agents, bleaches, some emulsifiers, mineral salts, propellants, food acids, sweeteners (but see factsheet), thickening agents, vegetable gums and vitamins.

For countries other than Australia and New Zealand, see USA where different numbers and names are used; and artificial colours around the world. Use links for medications and toothpaste that use Color Index (CI) numbers; some are shown below.

You can also search the international Codex Alimentarius http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/codex-texts/dbs/gsfa/en/ or the Australia/New Zealand Food Standards Code http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/code/Pages/default.aspx

Last update this list on cautions and avoid February 2024
Last update legal April 2021 by Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code Schedule 8:
https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2021C00324

                     Food additives by code number

–              Monk fruit extract or luo han guo extract

–              Sodium hydrosulphite

–              Sweet osmanthus ear glycolipids

Colours

100         Curcumin or turmeric, yellow (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

101         Riboflavin, lactoflavin, vitamin B2, Riboflavin-5′-phosphate sodium, yellow (failsafe)

102         Tartrazine, yellow #5, CI 19140, artificial AVOID

103         Alkanet or Alkannin, pink (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

104         Quinoline yellow, CI 47005, artificial AVOID

110         Sunset yellow FCF, yellow #6, CI 15985, artificial AVOID

120         Cochineal or carmines or carminic acid, red (from beetles, can cause true allergy – CAUTION)

122         Azorubine or Carmoisine, CI 14720, artificial AVOID      

123         Amaranth, CI 16185, artificial AVOID

124         Ponceau 4R, brilliant scarlet, CI 16255, artificial AVOID

127         Erythrosine, red #3, CI 45430, artificial AVOID

129         Allura red AC, red #40, CI 16035, artificial AVOID

132         Indigotine, indigo carmine, blue #2, CI 73015, artificial AVOID

133         Brilliant Blue FCF, blue #1, CI 42090, artificial AVOID

140         Chlorophyll (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

141         Chlorophyll-copper complex, Chlorophyllin copper complex, sodium and potassium salts (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

142         Green S, acid brilliant green, CI 44090, artificial AVOID

143         Fast green FCF, green #3, CI 42053, artificial AVOID

150a       Caramel I, plain

150b      Caramel II, caustic sulphur process

150c       Caramel III, ammonia process

150d       Caramel IV, ammonia sulphite process

151         Brilliant black BN or Brilliant black PN, CI28440, artificial AVOID

153         Carbon blacks or Vegetable carbon

155         Brown HT, chocolate brown, CI 52028, artificial AVOID

160a       Carotene, beta carotene (failsafe)

160b      Annatto extracts, bixin, norbixin, CI 75120, AVOID

160c       Paprika oleoresins(concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

160d      Lycopene (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

160e      b-apo-8′-Carotenal

160f       b-apo-8′-Carotenoic acid methyl or ethyl ester

161a       Flavoxanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161b      Lutein (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161c       Kryptoxanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161d       Rubixanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161e       Violoxanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161f        Rhodoxanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

162         Beet red (may contain sodium nitrate - preservative 251- up to 25 mg/kg - CAUTION)

163         Anthocyanins or Grape skin extract or Blackcurrant extract, red, blue, violet (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

164         Saffron or crocetin or crocin (pure colour from the saffron plant is failsafe but commercial saffron may be mixed with artificial colour 102 – CAUTION)

170         Calcium carbonate, mineral colour and calcium supplement (failsafe)

171         Titanium dioxide, mineral colour, white, CI 77891, (RPAH lists as unlikely to affect behaviour but recent research suggests an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis and it is banned in the EU from 2022)

172         Iron oxide, red, black, yellow mineral colours, CI 77491, (failsafe)

173         Aluminium, mineral colour

174         Silver, mineral colour

175         Gold, mineral colour

181         Tannic acid or tannins, brown (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

Preservatives - sorbates (associated with the full range of food intolerance reactions)

200         Sorbic acid AVOID

201         Sodium sorbate AVOID

202         Potassium sorbate AVOID

203         Calcium sorbate AVOID

Preservatives - benzoates (associated with the full range of food intolerance reactions)

210         Benzoic acid AVOID

211         Sodium benzoate AVOID

212         Potassium benzoate AVOID

213         Calcium benzoate AVOID

216         Propylparaben or Propyl-p-hydroxy-benzoate (only permitted in food colours but watch out for them in medications - CAUTION)

218         Methylparaben or Methyl-p-hydroxy-benzoate (only permitted in food colours but watch out for them in medications - CAUTION)

Preservatives - sulphites, sulfites (associated with the full range of food intolerance reactions but particularly asthma. Not to be confused with sulphates 514-519 which are failsafe)

220         Sulphur dioxide AVOID

221         Sodium sulphite, sulfite AVOID

222         Sodium bisulphite, bisulfite AVOID

223         Sodium metabisulphite, metabisulfite, meta AVOID

224         Potassium metabisulphite, metabisulfite, meta AVOID

225         Potassium sulphite, sulfite AVOID

228         Potassium bisulphite, sulfite AVOID

234         Nisin (type of antibiotic) CAUTION

235         Natamycin or pimaricin (type of antibiotic) CAUTION

242         Dimethyl dicarbonate (preservative reclassified as a Processing Aid, like ozone, hydrogen peroxide, lactoperoxidase, sodium thiocyanate and octanoic acid)

243         Ethyl lauroyl arginate (antimicrobial)

Preservatives - nitrates and nitrites (also colour fixative function. Unlike many food additives, nitrates and nitrites are necessary. Used in processed meats, they prevent bacterial growth and food poisoning, but they are not failsafe and there are other health issues). See also hidden additives

249         Potassium nitrite AVOID

250         Sodium nitrite AVOID

251         Sodium nitrate AVOID

252         Potassium nitrate AVOID

Food acids

260         Acetic acid, glacial

261         Potassium acetate or Potassium diacetate

262         Sodium acetate, Sodium diacetate

263         Calcium acetate

264         Ammonium acetate

270         Lactic acid

Preservatives - propionates (widespread in bakery products in Australia, UK and USA, rarely used in Europe. Frequently hidden as INGREDIENTS as ‘cultured wheat', 'cultured dextrose’ and various other ‘cultured’ ingredients; and as 'fermented wheat', 'fermented wheat flour' etc)

280         Propionic acid AVOID - and see the warning above about avoiding 'cultured' or 'fermented' anything

281         Sodium propionate AVOID

282         Calcium propionate AVOID

283         Potassium propionate AVOID

290         Carbon dioxide (propellant)

296         Malic acid (food acid)

297         Fumaric acid (food acid)

Antioxidants (Gallates and TBHQ, BHA and BHT are used to preserve vegetable oils and margarines. When vegetable oils are used in other products, these antioxidants are often unlisted because of the 5% labelling loophole. BHA and BHT can also leach into products from cereal wrappers and clingfilm. Antioxidants 300-309 are failsafe)

300         Ascorbic acid

301         Sodium ascorbate

302         Calcium ascorbate

303         Potassium ascorbate

304         Ascorbyl palmitate

307         α-Tocopherol, Vitamin E

307b      Tocopherols concentrate, mixed, Vitamin E

308         δ-Tocopherol, synthetic

309         γ-Tocopherol, synthetic

310         Propyl gallate AVOID

311         Octyl gallate AVOID

312         Dodecyl gallate AVOID

315         Erythorbic acid

316         Sodium erythorbate

319         tert-Butylhydroquinone, TBHQ AVOID

320         Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHA AVOID

321         Butylated hydroxytoluene, BHT AVOID

322         Lecithin

More food acids

325         Sodium lactate

326         Potassium lactate

327         Calcium lactate

328         Ammonium lactate

329         Magnesium lactate

330         Citric acid

331         Sodium citrate, Sodium dihydrogen citrate

332         Potassium citrate, Potassium dihydrogen citrate

333         Calcium citrate

334         Tartaric acid

335         Sodium tartrate

336         Potassium tartrate or Potassium acid tartrate

338         Phosphoric acid

Mineral salts

339         Sodium phosphate, dibasic, monobasic, tribasic

340         Potassium phosphate, dibasic , monobasic, tribasic

341         Calcium phosphate, dibasic or calcium hydrogen phosphate, monobasic or calcium dihydrogen phosphate, tribasic

342         Ammonium phosphate, dibasic, monobasic or Ammonium dihydrogen phosphates

343         Magnesium phosphate, dibasic, monobasic, tribasic

349         Ammonium malate

350         Sodium malate, Sodium hydrogen malate

351         Potassium malate

352         Calcium malate

353         Metatartaric acid

354         Calcium tartrate

355         Adipic acid

357         Potassium adipate

359         Ammonium adipates

363         Succinic acid

365         Sodium fumarate

366         Potassium fumarate

367         Calcium fumarate

368         Ammonium fumarate

380         Ammonium citrate, Triammonium citrate

381         Ferric ammonium citrate

385         Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate or calcium disodium EDTA

392        Rosemary extract (concentrated, can be high in salicylates – CAUTION)

Vegetable gums and thickeners (failsafe. Guar and xanthan are used extensively by coeliacs)

400         Alginic acid

401         Sodium alginate

402         Potassium alginate

403         Ammonium alginate

404         Calcium alginate

405         Propylene glycol alginate

406         Agar

407         Carrageenan - CAUTION

407a       Processed eucheuma seaweed

409         Arabinogalactan or larch gum

410         Locust bean gum or carob bean gum

412         Guar gum

413         Tragacanth gum

414         Acacia or gum arabic

415         Xanthan gum

416         Karaya gum

417         Tara gum

418         Gellan gum

Humectants also used as sweeteners (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

420         Sorbitol or sorbitol syrup (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

421         Mannitol (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

422         Glycerin or glycerol

Emulsifiers

431         Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate

433         Polysorbate 80 or Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate - CAUTION

435         Polysorbate 60 or Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate - CAUTION

436         Polysorbate 65 or Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate - CAUTION

440         Pectin (failsafe gelling agent)

442         Ammonium salts of phosphatidic acid

444         Sucrose acetate isobutyrate

445         Glycerol esters of wood rosins

More mineral salts

450         Pyrophosphates, Potassium pyrophosphate, Sodium acid pyrophosphate, Sodium pyrophosphate

451         Triphosphates, Potassium tripolyphosphate, Sodium tripolyphosphate

452         Polyphosphates, Potassium polymetaphosphate, Sodium metaphosphate, insoluble, Sodium polyphosphates, glassy

Thickeners

455         Yeast mannoproteins

456         Potassium polyaspartate

460         Cellulose microcrystalline, powdered (anti-caking agent) - CAUTION

461         Methyl cellulose - CAUTION

463         Hydroxypropyl cellulose - CAUTION

464         Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose - CAUTION

465         Methyl ethyl cellulose - CAUTION

466         Sodium carboxymethylcellulose - CAUTION

Emulsifiers

470         Fatty acid salts of aluminium, ammonia, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium - CAUTION

471         Mono- and di-glycerides of fatty acids - CAUTION

472a       Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol - CAUTION

472b       Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol - CAUTION

472c       Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol - CAUTION

472e       Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol - CAUTION

472f        Mixed tartaric, acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol or tartaric, acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol (mixed) - CAUTION

473         Sucrose esters of fatty acids

475         Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids

476         Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid

477         Propylene glycol mono- and di-esters or Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids

480         Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate

481         Sodium lactylate, oleyl lactylate, stearoyl lactylate

482         Calcium lactylate, oleyl lactylate, stearoyl lactylate

491         Sorbitan monostearate

492         Sorbitan tristearate

Mineral salts (often used as anti-caking agents too)

500         Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium carbonate

501         Potassium bicarbonate, Potassium carbonate

503         Ammonium carbonate, Ammonium hydrogen carbonate

504         Magnesium carbonate

507         Hydrochloric acid

508         Potassium chloride

509         Calcium chloride

510         Ammonium chloride

511         Magnesium chloride

512         Stannous chloride

514         Sodium sulphate

515         Potassium sulphate

516         Calcium sulphate

518         Magnesium sulphate

519         Cupric sulphate

526         Calcium hydroxide

529         Calcium oxide

530         Magnesium oxide

535         Sodium ferrocyanide

536         Potassium ferrocyanide

541         Sodium aluminium phosphate

542         Bone phosphate

551         Silicon dioxide, amorphous

552         Calcium silicate

553         Magnesium silicate or Talc

554         Sodium aluminosilicate

555         Potassium aluminium silicate

556         Calcium aluminium silicate

558         Bentonite

559         Aluminium silicate

560         Potassium silicate

570         Stearic acid or fatty acid

575         Glucono δ-lactone or Glucono delta-lactone

576         Sodium gluconate

577         Potassium gluconate

578         Calcium gluconate

579         Ferrous gluconate

580         Magnesium gluconate

586         4-hexylresorcinol

Flavour enhancers, glutamates and glutamate boosters (frequently hidden as yeast extract, hydrolysed vegetable protein HVP or hydrolysed plant protein HPP, see Hidden additives and 129 ways food manufacturers avoid declaring these additives

620         L-glutamic acid AVOID

621         Monosodium L-glutamate or MSG AVOID

622         Monopotassium L-glutamate AVOID

623         Calcium glutamate AVOID

624         Monoammonium L-glutamate AVOID

625         Magnesium glutamate AVOID

627         Disodium-5′-guanylate AVOID

631         Disodium-5′-inosinate AVOID

635         Disodium-5′-ribonucleotides AVOID

636         Maltol

637         Ethyl maltol

640         Glycine

641         L-Leucine

Miscellaneous additives

900a       Polydimethylsiloxane or Dimethylpolysiloxane (emulsifier, antifoaming agent, anti- caking agent)

901         Beeswax, white and yellow (glazing agent)

903         Carnauba wax (glazing agent)

904         Shellac (glazing agent)

905a      Mineral oil, white (reclassified as a Processing Aid)

905b      Petrolatum or petroleum jelly (glazing agent)

914         Oxidised polyethylene (humectant)

920         L-cysteine monohydrochloride

925         Chlorine (reclassified as a Processing Aid, flour treatment agent)

926         Chlorine dioxide (reclassified as a Processing Aid, flour treatment agent)

928         Benzoyl peroxide (reclassified as a Processing Aid, flour treatment agent)

Propellants

941         Nitrogen

942         Nitrous oxide

943a       Butane

943b       Isobutane

944         Propane

946         Octafluorocyclobutane

Artificial sweeteners (the safety of these is not adequately proven. Used in ‘diet’, ‘lite’ and ‘no added sugar’ products they may increase appetite and lead to addiction. Artificial sweeteners in general are unnecessary, artificial and not recommended. Sugar is a natural alternative)

950         Acesulphame potassium CAUTION

951         Aspartame, Nutrasweet, Equal CAUTION

952         Cyclamate or calcium cyclamate or sodium cyclamate CAUTION

953         Isomalt (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

954         Saccharin CAUTION

955         Sucralose CAUTION

956         Alitame CAUTION

957         Thaumatin

960         Steviol glycosides

961         Neotame CAUTION

962         Aspartame-acesulphame salt CAUTION

965         Maltitol and maltitol syrup or hydrogenated glucose syrup (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

966         Lactitol (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

967         Xylitol (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

968         Erythritol (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

969         Advantame CAUTION

Foaming agents

999(i)    Quillaia extract (type 1) CAUTION

999(ii)   Quillaia extract (type 2) CAUTION

Additional chemicals

1001       Choline salts

1100       α-Amylase

1101       Proteases (papain, bromelain, ficin)

1102       Glucose oxidase

1104       Lipases

1105       Lysozyme

1200       Polydextrose (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

1201       Polyvinylpyrrolidone

1400       Dextrin roasted starch

1401       Acid treated starch

1402       Alkaline treated starch

1403       Bleached starch

1404       Oxidised starch

1405       Enzyme treated starches

1410       Monostarch phosphate

1412       Distarch phosphate

1413       Phosphated distarch phosphate

1414       Acetylated distarch phosphate

1420       Starch acetate

1422       Acetylated distarch adipate

1440       Hydroxypropyl starch

1442       Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate

1450       Starch sodium octenylsuccinate

1451       Acetylated oxidised starch

1505       Triethyl citrate

1518       Triacetin

1520       Propylene glycol

1521       Polyethylene glycol 8000

1522       Calcium lignosulphonate (40-65)

                      Food additives by name

4-hexylresorcinol

586

Acacia or gum arabic

414

Acesulphame potassium CAUTION

950

Acetic acid, glacial

260

Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol - CAUTION

472a

Acetylated distarch adipate

1422

Acetylated distarch phosphate

1414

Acetylated oxidised starch

1451

Acid treated starch

1401

Adipic acid

355

Advantame CAUTION

969

Agar

406

Alginic acid

400

Alitame CAUTION

956

Alkaline treated starch

1402

Alkanet or Alkannin, pink (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

103

Allura red AC, red #40, CI 16035, artificial AVOID

129

Aluminium silicate

559

Aluminium, mineral colour

173

Amaranth, CI 16185, artificial AVOID

123

Ammonium acetate

264

Ammonium adipates

359

Ammonium alginate

403

Ammonium carbonate, Ammonium hydrogen carbonate

503

Ammonium chloride

510

Ammonium citrate, Triammonium citrate

380

Ammonium fumarate

368

Ammonium lactate

328

Ammonium malate

349

Ammonium phosphate, dibasic, monobasic or Ammonium dihydrogen phosphates

342

Ammonium salts of phosphatidic acid

442

Annatto extracts, bixin, norbixin, CI 75120, AVOID

160b

Anthocyanins or Grape skin extract or Blackcurrant extract, red, blue, violet (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

163

Arabinogalactan or larch gum

409

Ascorbic acid

300

Ascorbyl palmitate

304

Aspartame, Nutrasweet, Equal CAUTION

951

Aspartame-acesulphame salt CAUTION

962

Azorubine or Carmoisine, CI 14720, artificial AVOID

122

b-apo-8′-Carotenal

160e

b-apo-8′-Carotenoic acid methyl or ethyl ester

160f

Beeswax, white and yellow (glazing agent)

901

Beet red (may contain sodium nitrate - preservative 251- up to 25 mg/kg - CAUTION)

162

Bentonite

558

Benzoic acid AVOID

210

Benzoyl peroxide (reclassified as a Processing Aid, flour treatment agent)

928

Bleached starch

1403

Bone phosphate

542

Brilliant black BN or Brilliant black PN, CI28440, artificial AVOID

151

Brilliant Blue FCF, blue #1, CI 42090, artificial AVOID

133

Brown HT, chocolate brown, CI 52028, artificial AVOID

155

Butane

943a

Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHA AVOID

320

Butylated hydroxytoluene, BHT AVOID

321

Calcium acetate

263

Calcium alginate

404

Calcium aluminium silicate

556

Calcium ascorbate

302

Calcium benzoate AVOID

213

Calcium carbonate, mineral colour and calcium supplement (failsafe)

170

Calcium chloride

509

Calcium citrate

333

Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate or calcium disodium EDTA

385

Calcium fumarate

367

Calcium gluconate

578

Calcium glutamate AVOID

623

Calcium hydroxide

526

Calcium lactate

327

Calcium lactylate, oleyl lactylate, stearoyl lactylate

482

Calcium lignosulphonate (40-65)

1522

Calcium malate

352

Calcium oxide

529

Calcium phosphate, dibasic or calcium hydrogen phosphate, monobasic or calcium dihydrogen phosphate, tribasic

341

Calcium propionate AVOID

282

Calcium silicate

552

Calcium sorbate AVOID

203

Calcium sulphate

516

Calcium tartrate

354

Caramel I, plain

150a

Caramel II, caustic sulphur process

150b

Caramel III, ammonia process

150c

Caramel IV, ammonia sulphite process

150d

Carbon blacks or Vegetable carbon

153

Carbon dioxide (propellant)

290

Carnauba wax (glazing agent)

903

Carotene, beta carotene (failsafe)

160a

Carrageenan - CAUTION

407

Cellulose microcrystalline, powdered (anti-caking agent) - CAUTION

460

Chlorine (reclassified as a Processing Aid, flour treatment agent)

925

Chlorine dioxide (reclassified as a Processing Aid, flour treatment agent)

926

Chlorophyll (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

140

Chlorophyll-copper complex, Chlorophyllin copper complex, sodium and potassium salts (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

141

Choline salts

1001

Citric acid

330

Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol - CAUTION

472c

Cochineal or carmines or carminic acid, red (from beetles, can cause true allergy – CAUTION)

120

Cupric sulphate

519

Curcumin or turmeric, yellow (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

100

Cyclamate or calcium cyclamate or sodium cyclamate CAUTION

952

Dextrin roasted starch

1400

Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol - CAUTION

472e

Dimethyl dicarbonate (preservative reclassified as a Processing Aid, like ozone, hydrogen peroxide, lactoperoxidase, sodium thiocyanate and octanoic acid)

242

Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate

480

Disodium-5′-guanylate AVOID

627

Disodium-5′-inosinate AVOID

631

Disodium-5′-ribonucleotides AVOID

635

Distarch phosphate

1412

Dodecyl gallate AVOID

312

Enzyme treated starches

1405

Erythorbic acid

315

Erythritol (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

968

Erythrosine, red #3, CI 45430, artificial AVOID

127

Ethyl lauroyl arginate (antimicrobial)

243

Ethyl maltol

637

Fast green FCF, green #3, CI 42053, artificial AVOID

143

Fatty acid salts of aluminium, ammonia, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium - CAUTION

470

Ferric ammonium citrate

381

Ferrous gluconate

579

Flavoxanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161a

Fumaric acid (food acid)

297

Gellan gum

418

Glucono δ-lactone or Glucono delta-lactone

575

Glucose oxidase

1102

Glycerin or glycerol

422

Glycerol esters of wood rosins

445

Glycine

640

Gold, mineral colour

175

Green S, acid brilliant green, CI 44090, artificial AVOID

142

Guar gum

412

Hydrochloric acid

507

Hydroxypropyl cellulose - CAUTION

463

Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate

1442

Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose - CAUTION

464

Hydroxypropyl starch

1440

Indigotine, indigo carmine, blue #2, CI 73015, artificial AVOID

132

Iron oxide, red, black, yellow mineral colours, CI 77491, (failsafe)

172

Isobutane

943b

Isomalt (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

953

Karaya gum

416

Kryptoxanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161c

Lactic acid

270

Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol - CAUTION

472b

Lactitol (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

966

L-cysteine monohydrochloride

920

Lecithin

322

L-glutamic acid AVOID

620

Lipases

1104

L-Leucine

641

Locust bean gum or carob bean gum

410

Lutein (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161b

Lycopene (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

160d

Lysozyme

1105

Magnesium carbonate

504

Magnesium chloride

511

Magnesium gluconate

580

Magnesium glutamate AVOID

625

Magnesium lactate

329

Magnesium oxide

530

Magnesium phosphate, dibasic, monobasic, tribasic

343

Magnesium silicate or Talc

553

Magnesium sulphate

518

Malic acid (food acid)

296

Maltitol and maltitol syrup or hydrogenated glucose syrup (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

965

Maltol

636

Mannitol (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

421

Metatartaric acid

353

Methyl cellulose - CAUTION

461

Methyl ethyl cellulose - CAUTION

465

Methylparaben or Methyl-p-hydroxy-benzoate (only permitted in food colours but watch out for them in medications - CAUTION)

218

Mineral oil, white (reclassified as a Processing Aid)

905a

Mixed tartaric, acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol or tartaric, acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol (mixed) - CAUTION

472f

Monk fruit extract or luo han guo extract

– 

Mono- and di-glycerides of fatty acids - CAUTION

471

Monoammonium L-glutamate AVOID

624

Monopotassium L-glutamate AVOID

622

Monosodium L-glutamate or MSG AVOID

621

Monostarch phosphate

1410

Natamycin or pimaricin (type of antibiotic) CAUTION

235

Neotame CAUTION

961

Nisin (type of antibiotic) CAUTION

234

Nitrogen

941

Nitrous oxide

942

Octafluorocyclobutane

946

Octyl gallate AVOID

311

Oxidised polyethylene (humectant)

914

Oxidised starch

1404

Paprika oleoresins(concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

160c

Pectin (failsafe gelling agent)

440

Petrolatum or petroleum jelly (glazing agent)

905b

Phosphated distarch phosphate

1413

Phosphoric acid

338

Polydextrose (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

1200

Polydimethylsiloxane or Dimethylpolysiloxane (emulsifier, antifoaming agent, anti- caking agent)

900a

Polyethylene glycol 8000

1521

Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids

475

Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid

476

Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate

431

Polyphosphates, Potassium polymetaphosphate, Sodium metaphosphate, insoluble, Sodium polyphosphates, glassy

452

Polysorbate 60 or Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate

435

Polysorbate 65 or Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate

436

Polysorbate 80 or Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate

433

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

1201

Ponceau 4R, brilliant scarlet, CI 16255, artificial AVOID

124

Potassium acetate or Potassium diacetate

261

Potassium adipate

357

Potassium alginate

402

Potassium aluminium silicate

555

Potassium ascorbate

303

Potassium benzoate AVOID

212

Potassium bicarbonate, Potassium carbonate

501

Potassium bisulphite, sulfite AVOID

228

Potassium chloride

508

Potassium citrate, Potassium dihydrogen citrate

332

Potassium ferrocyanide

536

Potassium fumarate

366

Potassium gluconate

577

Potassium lactate

326

Potassium malate

351

Potassium metabisulphite, metabisulfite, meta AVOID

224

Potassium nitrate AVOID

252

Potassium nitrite AVOID

249

Potassium phosphate, dibasic , monobasic, tribasic

340

Potassium polyaspartate

456

Potassium propionate AVOID

283

Potassium silicate

560

Potassium sorbate AVOID

202

Potassium sulphate

515

Potassium sulphite, sulfite AVOID

225

Potassium tartrate or Potassium acid tartrate

336

Processed eucheuma seaweed

407a

Propane

944

Propionic acid AVOID - and see the warning above about avoiding 'cultured' or 'fermented' anything

280

Propyl gallate AVOID

310

Propylene glycol

1520

Propylene glycol alginate

405

Propylene glycol mono- and di-esters or Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids

477

Propylparaben or Propyl-p-hydroxy-benzoate (only permitted in food colours but watch out for them in medications - CAUTION)

216

Proteases (papain, bromelain, ficin)

1101

Pyrophosphates, Potassium pyrophosphate, Sodium acid pyrophosphate, Sodium pyrophosphate

450

Quillaia extract (type 1) CAUTION

999(i)

Quillaia extract (type 2) CAUTION

999(ii)

Quinoline yellow, CI 47005, artificial AVOID

104

Rhodoxanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161f

Riboflavin, lactoflavin, vitamin B2, Riboflavin-5′-phosphate sodium, yellow (failsafe)

101

Rosemary extract (concentrated, can be high in salicylates – CAUTION)

392

Rubixanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161d

Saccharin CAUTION

954

Saffron or crocetin or crocin (pure colour from the saffron plant is failsafe but commercial saffron may be mixed with artificial colour 102 – CAUTION)

164

Shellac (glazing agent)

904

Silicon dioxide, amorphous

551

Silver, mineral colour

174

Sodium acetate, Sodium diacetate

262

Sodium alginate

401

Sodium aluminium phosphate

541

Sodium aluminosilicate

554

Sodium ascorbate

301

Sodium benzoate AVOID

211

Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium carbonate

500

Sodium bisulphite, bisulfite AVOID

222

Sodium carboxymethylcellulose - CAUTION

466

Sodium citrate, Sodium dihydrogen citrate

331

Sodium erythorbate

316

Sodium ferrocyanide

535

Sodium fumarate

365

Sodium gluconate

576

Sodium hydrosulphite

Sodium lactate

325

Sodium lactylate, oleyl lactylate, stearoyl lactylate

481

Sodium malate, Sodium hydrogen malate

350

Sodium metabisulphite, metabisulfite, meta AVOID

223

Sodium nitrate AVOID

251

Sodium nitrite AVOID

250

Sodium phosphate, dibasic, monobasic, tribasic

339

Sodium propionate AVOID

281

Sodium sorbate AVOID

201

Sodium sulphate

514

Sodium sulphite, sulfite AVOID

221

Sodium tartrate

335

Sorbic acid AVOID

200

Sorbitan monostearate

491

Sorbitan tristearate

492

Sorbitol or sorbitol syrup (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

420

Stannous chloride

512

Starch acetate

1420

Starch sodium octenylsuccinate

1450

Stearic acid or fatty acid

570

Steviol glycosides

960

Succinic acid

363

Sucralose CAUTION

955

Sucrose acetate isobutyrate

444

Sucrose esters of fatty acids

473

Sulphur dioxide AVOID

220

Sunset yellow FCF, yellow #6, CI 15985, artificial AVOID

110

Sweet osmanthus ear glycolipids

Tannic acid or tannins, brown (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

181

Tara gum

417

Tartaric acid

334

Tartrazine, yellow #5, CI 19140, artificial AVOID

102

tert-Butylhydroquinone, TBHQ AVOID

319

Thaumatin

957

Titanium dioxide, mineral colour, white, CI 77891, (RPAH lists as unlikely to affect behaviour but recent research suggests an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis and it is banned in the EU from 2022)

171

Tocopherols concentrate, mixed, Vitamin E

307b

Tragacanth gum

413

Triacetin

1518

Triethyl citrate

1505

Triphosphates, Potassium tripolyphosphate, Sodium tripolyphosphate

451

Violoxanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161e

Xanthan gum

415

Xylitol (excess consumption may have a laxative effect)

967

Yeast mannoproteins

455

α-Amylase

1100

α-Tocopherol, Vitamin E

307

γ-Tocopherol, synthetic

309

δ-Tocopherol, synthetic

308

 

 Date of last update May 2024